This could indicate continued deflation of another and deeper magma source. (in Icelandic), (Overview of hazard due to volcanic eruptions and jökulhlaups from the western part of Mýrdalsjökull and Eyjafjallajökull) In: Magnús T.Guðmundsson and Ágúst Gunnar Gylfason (editors): Hættumat vegna eldgosa og hlaupa frá vestanverðum Mýrdalsjökli og Eyjafjallajökli, 11-44. Tephra next to craters is 20-30 m thick. A significant eruption is continuing at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. The water volume is now less than 0.5 million cubic meters. Eyjafjallajökull eruption: A new phase started on 14 April 2010A new phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption started around midnight on the 14th of April, where melt penetrated its way to the central crater beneath the glacier. Note that parts of the glaciers are greyish/black due to the ashfall (i.e. Air space over large part of Europe continues to be closed. The closure resulted in 10 million passengers left stranded across the world. Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Icelandic volcano whose name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning ‘the island’s mountain glacier.’ Lying beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier), its summit rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 meters) above sea level. Based on: IMO seismic monitoring; IES-IMO GPS monitoring; IMO hydrological data; web camera; lightning detection system and flights over the eruption site 11 and 14 June. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. On 20 March 2010, an eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano began in Fimmvörðuháls following months of small earthquakes under the Eyjafjallajökull glacier. A high column of flame reportedly rose from the crater. ENVISAT ASAR images before and during the eruption have been acquired, and a series of TerraSAR-X images cover the area.Background:The eruption is located on about 2 km wide pass of ice-free land between Eyjafjallajökull and the neighbouring Katla volcano with its overlying Myrdalsjökull ice cap. © John Seach. 9th May 2010 Update Large closures of airspace continue. the Sólheimajökull glacier).Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir (astahj@hi.is), Páll Einarsson (palli@hi.is), Eruption update 22 AprilSimilar situation as yesterday (see 21 April report). Eyjafjallajökull eruption: 20 March to present  - Compiled by Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Radar observations at the Eyjafjallajökull eruption site 15 April 2010, Radar observations at the Eyjafjallajöklull eruption site 14 Apríl 2010 - Eyjólfur Magnússon (pdf-file). Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull. It is important that the water level be checked regularly. With the first eruption occurring on March 20, 2010, there was little explosive activity but some production of lava (Lund & Benediktsson, 2010). Several MODIS thermal images on 21 March show a temperature anomaly where the eruption is occurring. Travelers were stranded in Australia, USA, and Europe as connecting flights to Europe were affected. Update on activity in Eyjafjallajökull 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Ash is approaching the coast of Canada near Newfoundland, and is expected to reach the coast at about 1 pm. Travel was severely disrupted as many flights were cancelled between 14 and 21 April 2010. There was a 40 mm inflation of the volcano. Present magma eruption rate is about 75 tonnes/second which is about 10% of the 72-hour long maximum phase. All flights to and from Britain have been cancelled until at least 7pm today. Developments in Quaternary Sciences, vol., 13, eds. Seismic signs of magma pathways through the crust at Eyjafjallajokull volcanoe, South Iceland, Icelandic Meteorological office report,  VI 2009-013http://www.vedur.is/media/vedurstofan/utgafa/skyrslur/2009/VI_2009_013.pdfHooper, A., R. Pedersen, F. Sigmundsson, Constraints on magma intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes in Iceland, from time series SAR interferometry, In:  The VOLUME project – Volcanoes:  Understanding subsurface mass movement, eds. On 15 April the eruption plume reaches mainland Europe with closure of airspace over large part of Northern Europe. If flight disruptions continue into this week there will be a shortage of some food products in Britain, which normally come in by air from east Asia and Africa. Over 30 earthquakes less than magnitude 2 were recorded at a depth of 30 km. Mudflood: No mudfloods in the past few days. No significant vertical deformation has been observed at GPS stations at or around the glacier. Acquired May 2, 2010, this natural-color image shows an ash plume and steam over the summit of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano. Some may be waiting for more than a week to find available seats. However, a station at the northeastern caldera rim (AUST), moved about three centimeters towards the southwest from the 9th to the 13th of June, inward to the caldera. 22nd April Update The Fimmvörðuháls activity can be seen east of the current eruption site. Emissions from the volcano are drifting across the UK, and are heading for central and eastern Europe. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. Ash fall is 30 m deep near the crater. 20th April update Ash emissions were reaching 28,000 ft. On 16th April there was a glacial outburst, and water level in Markarfljót rose by 50 centimeters at 6pm. About 5000 flights were disrupted on Friday as ash drifted towards Europe. In afternoon 22 April plume reached temporarily up to 6 km height, but was mostly at about 3 km level. Viewing the image, it can be seen that the ash has been falling towards the south and east of the eruption site. Eruptions have decreased at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. Katla, which scientists say is long overdue a major eruption, was hit by quakes of magnitude 4.5 and 4.6 plus around 20 aftershocks. No movements associated with the Katla volcano are presently observed - Benedikt Ófeigsson, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir and Bryndís BrandsdóttirRadar observations at the Eyjafjallajöklull eruption site 15 - 19 Apríl 2010 - Eyjólfur Magnússon (pdf-file), Report on magma chemistry – Preliminary interpretations of chemical analysis of tephra from Eyjafjallajökull volcano - Olgeir Sigmarsson et.al (pdf-file). Ash has already reached as far south as Italy. ^ to top Eruption in Iceland at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system begins 20 March 2010An eruption began in South Iceland in late evening of 20 March 2010 at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system (also known as Eyjafjöll volcano – Global Volcanism Program Volcano number 1702-02=). There were active, frequent earthquakes and the volcano is now considered to be dormant. 16th May 2010 Update A significant eruption was continuing at Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. Winds are blowing the ash over Europe, causing flights to remain grounded. Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. Ab… Other eruptions include an eruption in 1612 or 1613, and about 920 A.D.Episodes of unrest are known at Eyjafjallajökull, with documented sill intrusions in 1994 and 1999.For information see:http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1702-02=http://en.vedur.is/http://www.earthice.hi.is/and the following references:Erik Sturkell et. A. Vandeginste Activity continues at a similar level with ash generation and flow of meltwater in pulses. 1, was closed between Skógar and the crossroads to Gunnarsholt east of Hella. April), two GPS stations located north (STE2) and south (THEY) of the summit crater moved rapidly toward the eruption site (about 6 cm contraction between stations). Locals reported lava fountaining and a lava flow from the glacier. 111 p. http://www.raunvis.hi.is/~mtg/nemritg/BV-MS_2009.pdfPedersen, R., Freysteinn Sigmundsson and Páll Einarsson, 2007: Controlling factors on earthquake swarms associated with magmatic intrusions; Constraints from Iceland, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,162,73-80.Pedersen, R., Sigmundsson, F., Temporal development of the 1999 intrusive episode in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, derived from InSAR images, Bull. Phreatomatic explosive activity occurs with some lava spatter at craters.Plume height: about 3 kmTephra dispersal: local towards the southMeltwater: minor, but what is melted flows down into Markarfljót, no signs of water accumulation in cratersSeismic tremor recorded by the Icelandic Meteorological Office: some fluctuations but mostly stable. GPS measurements show slight movements towards the mountain except at Austmannsbunga in Mýrdalsjökull, which shows movement towards southwest. The data is posted timely to give maximum information on evaluation of an evolving natural catastrophe. The Skerin ridge on Eyjafjallajökull, South Iceland:  Morphology and magma-ice interaction in an ice-confined silicic fissure eruption. As of August 2010, Eyjafjallajökull … Over 20 lightning recorded in the eruption plume over a 4 hour period. Wind deflects the plume now to NW, closing airports in SW-Iceland. Although the volcanic eruptions were relatively small, the effects had a hugely debilitating impact on the European airline industry. However volcanic eruptions are unpredictable, and activity can change without warning. The rate of melting is assumed to be about one cuber meter per second. Flow in the Markarfljót river increased significantly and the water level has risen by 84 centimeters. 2010 Eruption This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. The lava erupted in the initial phase is alkali-olivine basalt, with silica content of about 47%. GPS stations around Eyjafjallajokull volcano (http://notendur.hi.is/runa/eyja_gps.html) show continued deflation of the region, but now at a much slower rate at the stations closest to the summit. The effects of the volcanic eru… Eruption update 23 AprilSimilar situation for the last two days (see 21 April report). This is consistent with chemical analysis of the magma erupted, intermediate chemical composition (58 wt% silica) (Níels Óskarsson). Overall, the eruption was … Insight into the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull from GPS data  - Sigrún Hreinsdóttir and Þóra ÁrnadóttirIn the first two days of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano summit eruption (14. This page contains scientific data and results from the staff of the Institute of Earth Sciences and various collaborators. Pulses are observed off and on. Air operators lost millions of pounds each day. Katla and Eyjafjallajökull Volcanoes, Developments in Quaternary Sciences, vol 13, 5-21.Sturkell, E., P. Einarsson, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, A. Hooper, B. G.Ófeigsson, H. Geirsson and H. Ólafsson, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes, In:  The Mýrdalsjökull Ice cap, Iceland - Glacial processes, sediments and landforms on an active volcano. Tephra filling the glacial lagoon of Gígjökulslón, car… The last historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prior to an eruption in 2010 produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December 1821 to January 1823 . Ash emissions from Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland are decreasing as parts of the glacier have melted, allowing lava to reach the surface without magma-water interaction. Small ash clouds are seen occasionally, they disappear again in some minutes. It is a continuation of eruptive activity in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system that began 20 March 2010. This change suggests that an equillibrium has been reached in magma flow in and out of the volcano.Plot showing the displacement (pdf file - data from Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, runa@hi.is)Eyjafjallajokull Volcano - GPS Time Series (by Sigrún Hreinsdóttir)New map of the lava flow from 21 - 24 March 2010 (by Eyjólfur Magnússon, pdf file), Results from observations flights over the eruption site 21 and 22 March 2010 (pdf file compiled by Eyjólfur Magnússon). There was another glacial outburst earlier in the day at Gígjökull glacial tongue. This is due to the change in eruptive style – tephra is now not washed to the same extent by water in the eruptive plume.Amount of erupted material: Uncertain but on the order of 100 millon cubic meters. A new eruption occurred on 14th April 2010 at Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Iceland. Meltwater started to emanate from the ice cap around 7 o’clock on April 14 and eruption plume was observed in the early morning. Ash emissions from Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland reached a maximum height of 27,000 ft on 15th May. The initial eruption of Eyjafjallajokull volcano last month was basalt, while the new eruption under the glacier last week involved andesite. 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