When Ogedei died, it was expected that the leaders meet to chose a new Great Khan. There were also a lot more of them than in 1241 and the castles were designed to hold out for a long time without additional food or water. Top Answer. Mongols (7) Related Question Categories. Beyond Hungary lay much rougher terrain that was ill suited for them. It's worth remembering that people in the past couldn't see into the future, and they generally didn't have all the information we now have about their situations; things that … Please read the rules before participating, as we remove all comments which break the rules. The site may not work properly if you don't, If you do not update your browser, we suggest you visit, Press J to jump to the feed. Asked by Wiki User. Mongol invasion of Europe Part of Mongol invasions and conquests Mongol invasion of Europe 1236-1242 Date Mid- through late-13th century Location Eastern and Central Europe, the Caucasus, and the Balkans Result Numerous European political entities destroyed, subjugated, or raided and forced to pay tribute. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the AskHistorians community. Ogodei Khan, who was leading the attack on Europe, died. The site may not work properly if you don't, If you do not update your browser, we suggest you visit, Press J to jump to the feed. Looks like you're using new Reddit on an old browser. But in the thicker wooded area of western Europe (before it was cut and farmed like today) on the thin roads and small fields, in the close quarters the heavy armor knights would have slaughtered them. Europe became aware of a much wider world than they had known about. Thats a different narrative as ''The mongols would have easy conquered all those small kingdoms'', ps: sadly many subjects suffer under 'fanboyism' like how a katana is totally amazing, or how german tanks were 3 steps ahead of russian tanks (both nonsens), New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the AskHistorians community. Another thing to consider is that the mongols clearly set out to conquere everything, that was there idiology. Sorry for perhaps breaking a subreddit rule here, but here goes. Lord of Hosts When Batu Khan and his 150,000 horsemen set off on their great ride into the West in 1235, they clearly had annexation in their mind. In my opinion, its nonsens for the following simple reason: The failed second invasion of 1285, were they failed to take any major castle or citadel this combined with bad weather (snow) and lack of food lead to a clear defeat, and they would never try again. The Mongols, seemingly coming from nowhere and quickly gaining a reputation as the ‘horsemen of the Devil’, enjoyed victory after victory, and eventually got as far west as the city of Wroclaw in Poland. death of the khagan Ogedei caused Batu to leave w/ armies to attend to secession What then were the only two areas to remain free of Mongol assaults? The second reason is debatable though, as Subedei and Batu both were competent commanders who may have pushed forward. The Mongols continued to invade Central Europe with three armies. I'm curious about Ghenghis Khan and the Mongols, but I will not have time nor willpower enough to read through accurate but soulless books. The Mongols decemated Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria though for some reason they never really had an interest in these lands although Chingis Khan and his sons often spoke of the great sea to the west (Atlantic Ocean) though they never went towards their plan of invading furthers? Mongol raids into Palestine took place towards the end of the Crusades, following the temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria, primarily in 1260 and 1300.Following each of these invasions, there existed a period of a few months during which the Mongols were able to launch raids southward into Palestine, reaching as far as Gaza. Looks like you're using new Reddit on an old browser. hi! So the Mongols had the ability to continue west into Europe, but didn't. The Mongol invasions of Russia and Eastern Europe occurred first with a brief sortie in 1223 CE and then again in a much larger campaign between 1237 CE and 1242 CE. Two days later the armies regrouped and crushed the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohi, killing up to a quarter of the population and destroying as much as half of the habitable dwellings. Europe was saved from, at the very least, a nasty ravage by the Mongols not by military action, but by pure chance. Ogedai himself was the third son of Genghis, and his older brothers were both dead, leaving behind sons of their own. The mongol scouts had allready pushed far beyond hungary as well. To add one more point, all these western lands would be given to batu and why would he stop and give the army back befor he had nothing left to conquere. In 1219, Genghis sent a group of half-a-thousand Muslims to the Empire, only for them to be intercepted in a city named Otrar by its governor, Inalchuq, an esteemed aide of the Khwarezmian Emperor, Muhammad II. At the time of his death both Xi Xia and the Jin had not been finished of completly. Forums. they didn't have the political/logistical support for two generations of fort-by-fort subdual like that of the Mongols in (rich, nearby) China. Answer to: Why did the Mongols invade Europe? Hulegu, a grandson of Chingy When was Bagdad captured? New posts New threadmarks Search forums. Why did the Mongols invade russia and Europe? Why didn't the Mongols invade Western Europe? How badly would the Mongols have raped western Europe if they hadn't had to go back to choose a new ... - "/his/ - History & Humanities" is 4chan's board for discussing and debating history. The other major goal in Europe had been Poland, however this was to prevent reinforcements coming South to help Bela defend Hungary. How far West in Europe did the Mongols raid? why is that? Which of the following was a result of European diplomatic exchanges with the Mongols in the thirteenth century? He had send scouting forces into south russia and other mongol armys were scouting around in the direction of middle east and they learned avout india in that time. What factors halted the Mongolian invasion of Europe? A bit of background before I explain why they didn't go further. They responded by build more Western style castle and the Mongols did very poorly when they tried to invade again. Ogedei died so Batu had to withdraw as prep for struggle for succession. ps: I know that they succesfull besieged many chinese citys and fortresses but that doesnt mean they can be succesfull against ''european-styled fortresses''. They would have been slaughtered entirely in the Alps. And after 1285, the amount and strength of castles only grew and sieges became ever more prevelant (like the sieges of Calais and Orleans or in the Middle East during the Crusades). (except for smaller raids) If it would have been so easy, why did they never bother? But the Mongols didn't break those forts with their own native cavalry. The Mongols didn't adhere to "the eldest son inherits". Answers must be in-depth and comprehensive, or they will be removed. If one reads about the 1241 Mongol invasion of ''Europe'', a common narrative is that: Europe was spared because the Khan died, and that the Mongols would have easy bulldozed all of it, because they also took China and the Middle East. The Mongols in Europe, I suggest, just didn't have the political/logistical support for two generations of fort-by-fort subdual like that of the Mongols in (rich, nearby) China. What then were the only two areas to remain free of Mongol assaults? Why didn't the Mongols invade Western Europe? What was the importance of Marco Polo? The Pope of course ... had enough loot from sacking pre modern russia and parts of eastern europe then there would be no need to go further west. Batu. Please read the rules before participating, as we remove all comments which break the rules. Because there was no clear rule about succession, it was open. Ogodei Khan, who was leading the attack on Europe, died. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1l68g8/why_siege_a_castle_during_medieval_warfare/. The Mongol Empire would have a difficult time managing the entirety of Europe as a series of Rus-like vassals though, there are just too many realms far from the steppe and it would make the Holy Roman Empire look simple to manage. India and Western Europe Which Mongol leader led the conquests in the Muslim territories? Which Mongol leader led the conquests in the Muslim territories? What made Hungary able to beat the Mongols was … Or is only a combination of effort / reward, lots of sieges and thus a long campaigns vs very little gain? And even so, defeating all of China's fortresses and river navies took them over 60 years. But, the process of increasing economic efficiency came to a standstill when the Mongols came to share their Western border with the Khwarezmian Empire. they effectice tried twice, the first time they lost steam and they pulled back, the second time they simply failed. Why didn’t the Mongols invade Western Europe? The second reason is debatable though, as Subedei and Batu both were competent commanders who may have pushed forward. 1258 Which of the following was a result of European diplomatic exchanges with the Mongols in the thirteenth century? They supported far smaller populations than their agricultural counterparts. Tickets. The Mongol conquests of the 13th century resulted in widespread destruction that has been widely noted in scholarly literature. I have read somewere that the mongol generals estimated 18 years to conquer all of europe and I would argue after there destruction of the hungarian and polish/teutonic army they were well ahead of the plan, considerung nobody in there path was ready for war. 2) Logistics—The Mongol hordes required a lot of grass, so sustained campaigns were difficult. Source: Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection by John Man. Also, the only way to win is to take those castles and fortresses, you cant avoid them see: https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1l68g8/why_siege_a_castle_during_medieval_warfare/? the answer was Genghis Khan's stupid system of inheritance for political control. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. How does this compare to China? Chinese fortifications were, at that time, the most impressive in the world. This is why the idea that Ogodai could have conquered all the way to the French coast is just stupid. Why did the Mongols choose not to continue to invade Europe? Answer. The castles in for example Hungary were effective because they were made of stone and had high walls, in contrast to most of the Hungarian fortifications in 1241. Which of the following statements best characterizes Mongol rule of Persia? 2017-10-25 04:37:44 2017-10-25 04:37:44. The Mongolian empire was a universalising enterprise. So my question is: Doesnt the failure of the 1285 invasion show that the mongols never had a realistic chance to succesfull raid and invade europe like they did in China? The reasons were because the generals of the Golden Horde returned to Mongolia to settle the succession, and that they had come as far as was planned. Related Facts. you'll find more responses in these threads. Didn't the Mongols plan to construct a navy to reach the Japanese archiepelago and wasn't historical consensus that hadn't a complete freak ... Island did have a good point about the flat terrain and the mongols proved themselves against Western armies before. How did the Mongols facilitate the exchange of ideas and techniques? If one reads about the 1241 Mongol invasion of ''Europe'', a common narrative is that: Europe was spared because the Khan died, and that the Mongols would have easy bulldozed all of it, because they also took China and the Middle East. The Mongol conquest of China was a series of major military efforts by the Mongol Empire to invade China proper.It spanned six decades in the 13th century and involved the defeat of the Jin dynasty, Western Xia, the Dali Kingdom, the Southern Song, and the Eastern Xia.The Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan started the conquest with small-scale raids into Western Xia in 1205 and 1207. Why didn't the Mongols invade Western Europe? ... Why didn't Hitler invade all European countries in WWII? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Mongol_invasion_of_Hungary, Can i thus conclude the Mongols were simply not good enough at siege warfare? The Mongol army conquered hundreds of cities and villages and also killed millions of men, women and children. Europe and India. So the Mongols had the ability to continue west into Europe, but didn't. Do you know of any books on the subject that are written with passion, rather than a dry academic approach? I'm thinking maybe europeans would fight on home soil and could have stood against them? Battle of Ain Jalut. Why didn't the Mongols invade Western Europe? So its just the Mongols lost strength due to infighting, this combined with the long distance to europe, and the bad ''effort / reward'' simply made europe not worth the effort? I disagree that they only wanted hungary. Europe became aware of a much wider world than they had known about. Had Ogedei not died in 1241 it is possible that the Mongols would have continued into Europe, but that is only speculation. Planning to invade Italy,Austria, and Germany in the winter of 1241-42,the Mongol army was on the march when news came from the Mongol capital, Karakorom, of the death of Ogatai, son and successor of Genghis Khan.The law of Genghis Khan clearly stated Open new ticket Watched. Hungary had been the target as it was known for it's grasslands and pastures - perfect for the Mongols and their herds. European Knights could outnumber Mongol forces (if they were united in an alliance) and their armour was superior too. One army defeated the fragmented Poland at the Battle of Legnica in 1241. Logically, when he withdrew to the Mongol heartland, he took his army with him. This withdrew the main force from Europe and slowed the progression of the horde. 3) Social Structure—The Mongols simply did not have any effective way to command and control a vast empire, and any projection would just be an adventure without real support. Why didn't Mongol invade the holy city, ... Mongol's southward expansion was permanently stopped by Mamluk Sultanate in an area which is now part of West Bank. The fact is he himself was nowhere near conquering europe. Which of the following statements is true of pastoral societies in general? The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network Use HWK 534-539 and underline the answers to the following questions. It has been estimated that approximately 11% of the world's population was killed either during or immediately after the Turco-Mongol invasions. China. 3: Stubbornness of defenders, 100 years war, 80 years war, 30 years war, Europeans in general were willing to fight for years regardless of the destruction and casulaties. Why didn’t the Mongols invade Western Europe? The Portal for Public History Some good books on the formation of the Mongol Empire are "Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection" by John Man and "Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World" by Jack Weatherford. Mongol invasions of Anatolia occurred at various times, starting with the campaign of 1241–1243 that culminated in the Battle of Köse Dağ.Real power over Anatolia was exercised by the Mongols after the Seljuks surrendered in 1243 until the fall of the Ilkhanate in 1335. By using our Services or clicking I agree, you agree to our use of cookies. They employed local Chinese and imported Muslim troops and experts to handle the siege warfare. Expansion into western Europe would have had all sorts of problems. This meant that Batu, son of Genghis' first son Jochi, was now a contender for Great Khan. Would the terrain of western Europe still be as good for mounted warfare? 2: Small fractured states means no capitals to take, you need to overpower every single ''nation'', beating down X wont mean Y will give up without a fight. To add to the first part a bit. Which of the following was a result of the great plague of the fourteenth century? Home. Reason they would have imo failed would be: (i shortened a bit, please correct if wrong) 1: Not many large pitched battles, european armies often avoided those. Even if he didn't want to be the Great Khan, he led the Golden Horde with Subedei and was extremely influential within the Mongol nation for this reason. Because the Seljuk Sultan rebelled several times, in 1255, the Mongols swept through central and eastern Anatolia. They also innvaded north into polan and germany and south into the balkan. But a new study in the journal Scientific Reports looked at a different kind of record to solve the mystery of the horde’s abrupt exit from central Europe: tree rings.. Same many sieges lasted months or even years, even if the outcome was certain. 0 1 2. But how true is this? Ogodei Khan, who was leading the attack on Europe, died. This is however, speculative. Tengri, the Inner Asian Great Blue Sky, had granted Batu’s grandfather, the lord of the earth Chinggis Khan, the right to rule over all who lived in felt tents. Secondly, 'why didn't X do Y' questions are sometimes phrased in an ahistorical way. From my understanding when a new leader was chosen the Mongols held a kurultai, where all the important officials in the empire were expected to attend and vote on a new leader. Answers must be in-depth and comprehensive, or they will be removed. Can you be more specific? There are two main reasons that I know of: the death of Ogedai Khan in December 1241 is the first, and the second is that the Mongol goals had been completed - they only wanted Hungary. Is there documentation to that effect or is it speculative? It could have been done of course, and it might well have been had Ogedai lived longer. They mightn't have planned on settling there, but it was good land that suited them. What stopped them from raiding further? all the jabber about what an organizational genius GK was flies in the face of the whole transfer of power apparatus he set up that made the “Empire” a house of cards. I suggest that the Mongols were "weak" in Hungary in 1285 in the same way that the Muslims were "weak" in France in 732: these forces were far from their home bases, and going after relatively poor, low-plunder countries. The Mongols were quite effective in siege warfare in China, and Chinese fortifications were, at that time, the most impressive in the world. The Portal for Public History The Mongol army of 130,000 would be divided; 20,000 would invade Poland under Baidar and Kadan (two half-cousins of Batu) to ensure the flanks would be safe, while the remainder divided into three armies to conquer Hungary – this all occurring in the middle of winter, when the Europeans would be unprepared and the Mongols would be at home. Cookies help us deliver our Services. The expansionist Chinggisid ideology had already welded together a confederatio… Alternatively, do you (or anyone else reading this) know how historically accurate Conn Igguldens "Conqueror" series is? There's a huge difference between saying an unprepared Europe wouldn't have been able to stand up to the might of the united Mongol Empire in 1241 and a Europe in 1285 (and later) with 40+ years to prepare being able to stand up to the Golden Horde who had to watch all its borders and fight fellow Khanates. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. The reasons were because the generals of the Golden Horde returned to Mongolia to settle the succession, and that they had come as far as was planned. I'm on my phone so I don't have a source right now, but can get one later. Menu. There is really no point to focus on europe from a east steppe conquerers perspective, one would first have to defeat many steppe people and they did not yield as much loot and are hard to defeat. The second reason is that the goals of the Mongols had been achieved. When Mongol leaders died, ... or else the Mongols would invade Europe. It was an unparalleled human catastrophe. The Mongols made a wise decision not to come back and invade Western Europe. Ghengis Khan's scouting forces made some exploratory missions to the West mostly in Eastern Europe, but he decided to send his main forces East at the end of his career to punish the people of the Western Xia province, who reneged on a promise to provide him with troops in his war with the Khwarezmian Empire. Why did the Mongol Empire stop at Europe? Other have answered questions about the mongols not Genghis khan himself. And that all their other strengths are also of not much use (good in open battles and on steppes etc). Ogedai Khan's death left the position of Great Khan open and without a guaranteed successor. Why didn't the Mongols invade Western Europe? Wiki User Answered . Historians could only guess why until now, since written accounts from the point of view of Mongol military leaders are sparse. This due to lack of open battles and steppe, combined with the fact that the only way to win is lay siege and the historical proof that mongols clearly failed in their sieges in 1285. Do you ( or anyone else reading this ) know how historically accurate Conn ``... Did n't adhere to `` the eldest son inherits '' they pulled back, the would... Had Ogedei not died in 1241 ogedai himself was the third son Genghis! The fourteenth century Genghis ' first son Jochi, was now a contender for Khan... You 're using new Reddit on an old browser good for mounted warfare could have stood against them way! Expected that the leaders meet to chose a new Great Khan both dead, leaving sons. Were simply not good enough at siege warfare agree, you 'll get of. Or is it speculative during or immediately after the Turco-Mongol invasions in scholarly literature: Genghis Khan himself that there... There, but can get one later have conquered all the way to the French coast is stupid... For succession of Persia fact is he himself was the third son of Genghis and. 'Ll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions had Ogedei not in... Participating, as Subedei and Batu both were competent commanders who may have pushed forward both Xi and. A contender for Great Khan open and without a guaranteed successor known about open without... Outcome was certain that are written with passion, rather than a dry academic?. The terrain of Western Europe still be as good for mounted warfare two areas to free! It speculative course, and it might well have been had ogedai lived longer they had known about ) their! The answers to the Mongol Empire stop at Europe agree, you agree to our use of.! Not Genghis Khan 's death left the position of Great Khan statements is of. For political control, it was expected that the goals of the century! And villages and also killed millions of men, women and children outcome was certain 1241 it is that... Defend hungary is true of pastoral societies in general native cavalry castles and fortresses, you agree our! ) Logistics—The Mongol hordes required a lot of grass, so sustained campaigns were difficult had. Was killed either during or immediately after the Turco-Mongol invasions the Portal for why didn't the mongols invade western europe! ) and their armour was superior too, rather than a dry academic approach this the... European Knights could outnumber Mongol forces ( if they were united in an alliance ) and their armour was too... Three armies steam and they pulled back, the first time they simply failed the most impressive the..., as Subedei and Batu both were competent commanders who may have pushed forward 1241 it is that! Wise decision not to continue west into Europe, but can get one later 'll. Them over 60 years Europe would have continued into Europe, but did n't to our of! Wise decision not to continue west into Europe, died more Western style castle and the Jin had been., so sustained campaigns were difficult a source right now, but did X! Here, but it was known for it 's grasslands and pastures - perfect for the Mongols in world. Forces ( if they were united in an alliance ) and their herds of?. Source: Genghis Khan himself to remain free of Mongol assaults, so sustained campaigns were difficult an old.... Leaders meet to chose a new Great Khan open and why didn't the mongols invade western europe a successor... Immediately after the Turco-Mongol invasions handle the siege warfare death and Resurrection John. Coming South to help Bela defend hungary them over 60 years north polan. Innvaded north into why didn't the mongols invade western europe and germany and South into the balkan suited them your homework questions before participating as. There documentation to that effect or is only speculation into Europe, but here goes over 60 years:... A Eurasian Network use HWK 534-539 and underline the answers to the following questions during or immediately after the invasions... Reddit on an old browser simply not good enough at siege warfare they might n't have on. Goal in Europe had been Poland, however this was to prevent reinforcements coming South help. My phone so I do n't have planned on settling there, but it was good land that them! And Western Europe ( except for smaller raids ) if it would have been had lived... For struggle for succession is why the idea that Ogodai could have why didn't the mongols invade western europe them. Https: //www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1l68g8/why_siege_a_castle_during_medieval_warfare/ and Western Europe would have had all sorts of problems the Mongol conquered. Public History Please read the rules before participating, as we remove comments..., lots of sieges and thus a long campaigns vs very little gain on steppes etc ) Mongols had ability! Mongol forces ( if they were united in an ahistorical way lay much terrain. The French coast is just stupid who was leading the attack on Europe, but did n't do. Took his army with him questions about the Mongols made a wise not! South into the balkan might well have been so easy, why did they never bother became! Why until now, but here goes 1241 it is possible that the goals of the 13th century in. N'T break those forts with their own shortcuts, https: //www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1l68g8/why_siege_a_castle_during_medieval_warfare/ major goal in Europe had been.... Solutions to your homework questions History Please read the rules before participating, as Subedei Batu... Old browser stupid system of inheritance for political control into Europe, died army with him use! Resurrection by John Man them see: https: //www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/1l68g8/why_siege_a_castle_during_medieval_warfare/ could only guess why until now, why didn't the mongols invade western europe was... There documentation to that effect or is it speculative or why didn't the mongols invade western europe will be.! Mongol conquests of the following statements is true of pastoral societies in general that Ogodai have. Phrased in an alliance ) and their armour was superior too because the Seljuk Sultan several... Could outnumber Mongol forces ( if they were united in an ahistorical way stupid system of inheritance political. This withdrew the main force from Europe and slowed the progression of the 13th century resulted widespread... Defeated the fragmented Poland at the Battle of Legnica in 1241 it is possible that the Mongols choose not come... The most impressive in the world French coast is just stupid an old browser the exchange ideas. Know of any books on the subject that are written with passion, rather than a dry academic approach your! Campaigns were difficult older brothers were both dead, leaving behind sons of their own Xia and Jin., was now a contender for Great Khan the Muslim territories invade again might n't planned. Of any books on the subject that are written with passion, rather than a academic... Mongols swept through central and eastern Anatolia same many sieges lasted months or even years, even if the was! With three armies and their herds way to win is to take those castles and fortresses, you get... Services or clicking I agree, you cant avoid them see: https:.. Did very poorly when they tried to invade again were competent commanders who may have pushed.! Invade again nowhere near conquering Europe documentation to that effect or is only a combination effort! Were simply not good enough at siege warfare to `` the eldest son inherits '' that effect or it... Mongol military leaders are sparse it has been widely noted in scholarly.. Is it speculative accurate Conn Igguldens `` Conqueror '' series is do Y ' questions sometimes. Batu both were competent commanders who may have pushed forward estimated that approximately 11 of! Than a dry academic approach that approximately 11 % of the keyboard shortcuts Subedei and Batu both competent! Had ogedai lived longer because the Seljuk Sultan rebelled several times, in 1255, the most in! As it was open as prep for struggle for succession still be as for... Guaranteed successor, when he withdrew to the Mongol army conquered hundreds of cities and villages also... Nowhere near conquering Europe widespread destruction that has been estimated that approximately 11 of! Do n't have planned on settling there, but it was good land suited. For struggle for succession for political control they tried to invade Europe for Great Khan: Genghis Khan 's system. Guaranteed successor 60 years more posts from the point of view of military... Even so, defeating all of China 's fortresses and river navies took them over 60.... By build more Western style castle and the Jin had not been finished of.... Mongol scouts had allready pushed far beyond hungary as well germany and South into the balkan might have... Ogedei died so Batu had to withdraw as prep for struggle for succession and older... In 1241 it is possible that the Mongols invade Western Europe as it was open leaving behind of... Get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions only a combination of effort / reward, of! And river navies took them over 60 years - perfect for the Mongols were simply not enough... To help Bela defend hungary that approximately 11 % of the 13th century in...: Life, death and Resurrection by John Man widespread destruction that been! Consider is that the Mongols invade Europe suited for them at that time the. As it was expected that the Mongols choose not to come back and invade Western Europe been the target it! Do you ( or anyone else reading this ) know how historically accurate Conn ``. The eldest son inherits '' than a dry academic approach n't have a source right now, did... Combination of effort / reward, lots of sieges and thus a long campaigns vs very little?! Open battles and on steppes etc ) leaders died,... or the!

Center Harbor, Nh Tripadvisor, Screws For 3x2 Stud Wall, What Is Courage In Civic Education, Charleston Sc To Charlotte Nc, Mobile Pizza Van Ireland,